Food – about vegan food.

Going vegan is derived only from plant based foods. Vegans do not use or consume any animals or animal products including flesh (land or sea animals), milk, eggs, or honey.

Eating vegan doesn’t require breaking the bank or moving to a big city. The most nutritious and inexpensive vegan foods which can be found in any supermarket, are fresh produce, grains, legumes and nuts/seeds. These should make up the bulk of the diet for optimum health. Vegan processed foods in the form of soy hot dogs, vegan &”cheeses,” desserts, etc are best eaten only on occasion. The following information will help you ease into going vegan with so much more confidence.

Isn’t vegan food boring?

A popular myth is that vegans subsist only on soybeans and salad. In reality, vegans eat everything non-vegans eat, but without the animal products and likely with more variety from special foods.

Common vegan dishes include stir fry, pasta, rice and beans, chana masala, cucumber-avocado sushi, pad thai, quinoa, pizza, pancakes, French toast, waffles, veggie burgers, chili, soups, tacos, burritos, casseroles, stew, sandwiches, cookies, non-dairy ice-cream and other delicious frozen vegan confectionaries, cakes, pies, etc.

Nutrition & Health

Nutritional deficiencies are a concern for everyone. While vegans statistically enjoy longer life spans than the average human being, we are not exempt from this reality. First and foremost, you should ensure you are receiving enough Vitamin B-12, Omega-3, and Vitamin D. See below for more detailed information on vegan nutrition.

Protein: Because animal-based foods are high in protein, it’s a common misconception that vegans don’t get enough of it. In fact, the real problem is nonvegans getting too much protein. Vegans can get all the protein they need from lentils, tempeh, tofu, beans, nuts, seeds, and even vegetables.

We highly recommend the book, Becoming Vegan by Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina. M.S., R.D for more detailed information pertaining to ones age and individual needs. They provide sample menu plans and nutrition recommendations for children, teenagers, pregnancy, and athletes as well as a wealth of information on proper nutrition. Also, be sure to check out The Boston Vegan Association’s Nutritional Pamphlet

Calcium: (Approximately 1000 milligrams per day, 1200 milligrams for women over 51 and men over 70.) Leafy green vegetables-kale, collards, broccoli, okra, figs, oranges, almonds, pistachio nuts, hazelnuts, flaxseed, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, soybeans, chickpeas, navy beans, pinto beans, kidney beans, lentils, tempeh, tofu*, fortified non-dairy yogurt, fortified non-dairy milks, fortified soy products, fortified breakfast cereals, and fortified orange juice. Note: Spinach, beet greens, and chard are healthy foods but not good sources of calcium.

When purchasing tofu, look for the calcium-set tofu with “calcium sulphate” in the ingredients.

Iron: Chickpeas (hummus), lentils, navy beans, pinto beans, kidney beans, soybeans, quinoa, tofu, raisins, goji berries, fortified veggie burgers and other soy products, pumpkin seeds, cashews, figs, sunflower seeds, sesame tahini, prunes, whole wheat, parsley, and pine nuts.

Tips

Vitamin-C rich foods help with iron absorption. Try eating these foods in the same meal. Use cast-iron cookware. If your iron status is low, avoid consuming foods high in zinc at the same meal.

B12: (2000 micrograms once a week or 10-100 micrograms a day.) Produced by bacteria and found in soil, water, etc, it is necessary for vegans to supplement their diet since most vegetables are cleaned very well. Vegans supplement their diets with B12 by eating nutritional yeast or fortified foods. Most non-dairy milks and cereals are fortified with B12. Consume at least three servings of vitamin B12-fortified food per day (each supplying at least 20% of the Daily Value on the label), Or, vegan B12 tablets, or slow release B12 patches are also available today. Very often nonvegans suffer from B12 deficiency – deficiencies can affect anyone who follows a poor diet following only processes fast foods etc.  (One 2000 mcg tablet (ideally chewed or dissolved under your tongue) once a week; or at least 10-100 mcg once a day.)Buy Nutritional Yeast Buy Vitamin B12 Tablets

Omega-3: Two tablespoons of ground flax seeds every day or two teaspoons daily of flax seed oil. And/or, an omega 3 DHA supplement in the form of algae.

 

Vitamin D: Light skin-about 10-15 minutes of sunshine. Dark skin: about 30 minutes of sunshine daily depending on the time of year, etc. Buy vegan Vitamin D3 Note: Vitamin D3 found in many fortified orange juices comes from the wool of sheep and is not vegan.

The information here is intended as a helpful overview but cannot cover all vegan nutrition topics. To make sure that your diet is meeting all the nutrients that your body and mind need, please consult a nutrition professional with expertise in vegan diets should you feel the need, preferably consult a vegan physician – one who has extensive knowledge on healthy vegan foods. Also it is preferable to obtain nutrients from a healthy well balanced vegan diet to those of pills where possible. When going vegan it is very likely that your health will improve whilst doing it correctly.

Special Foods

Spend some time with a vegan and you may be surprised to learn a vegan’s diet is not just the standard diet minus animal products. There are several kinds of foods which have gained recognition as vegan staples.

Tempeh

Tempeh (“tem-pea” or “tem-pay”) is like tofu, but fermented and pressed to be thick and savoury. An easy way to prepare tempeh is to fry or grill with blended seasonings meant for grilling. Check your ingredients, of course, but surprisingly many are vegan.

 

Tofu

Tofu is a solid food made from pressed soybean curd. It’s one of the most unusual vegan staples in that it can be used to make a breakfast dish like  scrambled tofu, a dinner dish like pan fried tofu, or even a chocolate mousse dessert. Tofu gets a bad wrap in popular culture as a tasteless food, but tofu isn’t meant to be a flavour agent. It works best at soaking up flavours and giving them a texture and consistency.

Seitan

Seitan is a chewy and naturally brown substance made from wheat gluten, an isolated protein found in wheat. Seitan is usually cut into strips and baked or fried to provide some protein and chewiness to a dish.

Like tempeh, seitan is very easy to prepare and needs little to no seasoning.

Nutritional Yeast

Nutritional yeast is very different from the yeast used in bread. Nutritional yeast, which comes powdered or in flakes, is most often used to provide a cheesy consistency. Unlike cheese, nutritional yeast also lasts far longer and has no cholesterol. Sprinkle in soup, on popcorn, or add water to make cheesy sauces.

Red Star Nutritional Yeast

Ingredients

The number of nonvegan ingredients found in food and products is too numerous to mention here, but we’ve included some of the most common below.

Common Nonvegan Ingredients

  • Casein
    Casein is a protein from milk. Surprisingly, can often found in soy cheeses –  so beware!
  • Carmine/Carminic Acid
    Also known as Crimson Lake, Cochineal, Natural Red 4, C.I. 75470, or E120, carmine is made from crushed cochineal insects with bright red shells. Often used as a red food coloring.
  • Beeswax
    Beeswax, as the name implies comes from honeybees. Why isn’t honey/beeswax vegan?
  • Gelatin
    Gelatin is a substance produced from the collagen found in animal bones and hoofs. This is often used for marshmallows, Jello®, and as a preservative.
  • Vitamin D3
    Often found in fortified orange juice, vitamin D3 comes from Lanolin, a sheep product. D2, however, is vegan.
  • Whey
    Whey is a milk protein often used as a protein boost in some commercial foods.

Replacements

Here are some quick tips for using vegan ingredients to replace the animal products in your favourite recipes

Eggs

  • Apple Sauce
    Applesauce will give off a gas while being cooked, making your baked goods fluffy. It’s also doesn’t require adding as much liquid as powdered replacers. 1/4 cup applesauce = 1 egg
  • Ground Flax Seed
    When ground to a powder and liquified with water, ground flax seed creates a gooey texture great for binding. It’s also full of protein and omega-3s. 1 tbsp ground flax + 3 tbsp water = 1 egg.
  • Banana
    Like applesauce, bananas are naturally sweet. They also have strong binding properties when used baked goods. 1/2 banana = 1 egg
  • Baking soda/powder
    When you really need your dish fluffy without extra flavor, simple baking soda or baking powder does wonders. 1 tsp baking powder + 1 1/2 tbs water + 1 1/2 tbs oil or 1 tbs vinegar + 1 tsp baking soda = 1 egg.
More wonderful egg substitutes can be found here (egg replacements)

Milk

  • Soy/Oat/Hemp/Almond/etc. milk
    By now, you’ve probably heard of the increasingly popular nut- and bean-derived milk products making their way into grocery stores. While soymilk is probably the most prevalent, some prefer rice milk for its naturally light and sweet flavour and almond milk for a boost of Vitamin E, monounsaturated fats, dietary fiber, and B vitamins.

More about milk replacements here (milk replacements)

  • Vegetable Oil
    The only difference between a fat and an oil is that a fat is a solid at room temperature. Often when milk is used in foods like mashed potatoes, it’s the fat that makes it creamy. Substituting this for vegetable or olive oil is equally as satisfying and much healthier.

Check out some ideas for a healthy vegan pantry here (vegan pantry to help get you started)

Food Blogs

Cookbooks

The New American Vegan by Vincent J. Guihan

Weaving together personal stories with 120 appetizing recipes, this friendly cookbook delivers authentically American and vegan cuisine that has to be tasted to be believed. Midwestern-inspired recipes range from very basic to the modestly complicated, but always with an eye on creating something beautiful and delicious in its simplicity.

Clear text provides step-by-step instructions and helps new cooks find their feet in a vegan kitchen, with a whole chapter devoted to terms, tools, and techniques. With an eye towards improvisation, the cookbook provides a detailed basic recipe that is good as-is, while providing additional notes that explain how to take each recipe further—to increase flavor, to add drama to the presentation, or just to add extra flourish.”

Vegan Yum Yum by Lauren Ulm

“When Lauren Ulm went vegan, she faced the typical onslaught of questions from acquaintances and more than the occasional wince from unsuspecting dinner guests. Vowing to prove that vegan food can be decadent and delicious—and not a bland stand-in for ‘normal’ food—she created a blog, veganyumyum.com. What began as a hobby became an obsession….

Here in her debut cookbook, Lauren shows that vegan food is anything but dull, with her creative and quirky twists on everything from crowd-pleasing appetizers to indulgent desserts, from easy weekend breakfasts to speedy weeknight dinners, plus holiday- and company-worthy fare you can serve with pride.”

The Vegan Table by Colleen Patrick-Goudreau

“A celebration of plant-based cuisine, The Vegan Table offers recipes and menus for every occasion and season, including romantic meals, traditional tea parties, formal dinners, casual gatherings, children’s parties, and holiday feasts.

Packed with invaluable tips, expert advice, fascinating lore, delicious recipes, and gorgeous full-color photographs, The Vegan Table is the ultimate guide, whether you are hosting an intimate gathering of close friends or a large party with an open guest list.

Organized by themed menus, the eclectic mix of recipes features cuisines from around the world, including Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, Mexican, Asian, Indian, and African. Follow the menus provided, or create your own using the array of appetizers, soups, stews, salads, main dishes, and desserts.”

Let them Eat Vegan by Dreena Burton

“Vegan food has come a long way in the past decade. The once ubiquitous dry, packaged veggie burger is no longer the poster child for an animal-free diet.

It has evolved into a creative, sophisticated cuisine touted by the likes of Food & Wine magazine. Long at the fore of vegan blogging and cooking, Dreena Burton has been known for making healthy taste delicious. Let Them Eat Vegan! distills more than fifteen years of recipe development that emphasize unrefined, less-processed ingredients–no white flour or white sugar, but instead whole-grain flours, natural sweeteners, raw foods, and plenty of beans ’n greens.

There’s no relying on meat analogues here, either–just hearty, healthy food that looks and tastes great. As the mother of three young girls, Burton always keeps their nutrition–and taste buds–in mind. From the simplest comfort foods like Warm ‘Vegveeta’ Cheese Sauce to the more sophisticated Anise-and Coriander-Infused Orange Lentil Soup, these recipes will delight and inspire even the pickiest eaters and provide lifelong vegans with the innovative, wholesome recipes they’ve always wanted.”

The 30 Minute Vegan by Mark Reinfeld and Jennifer Murray

“Busy vegans, rejoice! award-winning husband and wife chefs/authors Reinfeld and Murray present 150 delicious, easy-to prepare recipes for everyday vegan cooking—all dishes that can be prepared in a half-hour.

Sections include The Lighter Side of Life: Smoothies & Satiating Beverages; Snacks, Pick Me Ups & Kids’ Favorites; Lunches: Wraps, Rolls, Bowls, and More; Extraordinary Salads; Sumptuous Soups; Small Plates: Appetizers, Side Dishes, Light Dinners; Wholesome Suppers; Guilt-Free Comfort Food: Healthy Translations of Old Stand-bys; and Divine Desserts.

The 30-Minute Vegan also provides at-a-glance cooking charts, kids’ favorite dishes, and exciting menu suggestions for every occasion—making this an essential cookbook for busy vegans who want to enjoy delicious, healthful, whole-foods vegan fare every day.”

Desserts

The Joy of Vegan Baking by Colleen Patrick-Goudreau

“A seasoned cooking instructor and self-described “joyful vegan,” author Colleen Patrick-Goudreau puts to rest the myth that vegan baking is an inferior alternative to non-vegan baking, putting it in its rightful place as a legitimate contender in the baking arena.

More than just a collection of recipes, this informative cookbook is a valuable resource for any baker — novice or seasoned. Learn just how easy it is to enjoy your favorite homespun goodies without compromising your health or values.”

Vegan Cupcakes Take Over the World by Isa Chandra Moskowitz and Terry Hope Romero

The hosts of the vegan cooking show The Post Punk Kitchen are back with a vengeance — and this time, dessert.

A companion volume to Vegan with a Vengeance, Vegan Cupcakes Take Over the World is a sweet and sassy guide to baking everyone’s favorite treat without using any animal products. This unique cookbook contains over 50 recipes for cupcakes and frostings — some innovative, some classics — with beautiful full color photographs. Isa and Terry offer delicious, cheap, dairy-free, egg-free and vegan-friendly recipes like Classic Vanilla Cupcakes (with chocolate frosting), Crimson Velveteen Cupcakes (red velvet with creamy white frosting), Linzer Torte Cupcakes (hazelnut with raspberry and chocolate ganache), Chai Latte Cupcakes (with powdered sugar) and Banana Split Cupcakes (banana-chocolate chip-pineapple with fluffy frosting). Included also are gluten-free recipes, decorating tips, baking guidelines, vegan shopping advice, and Isa’s true cupcake anecdotes from the trenches.

When Vegan Cupcakes Take Over the World, no dessert lover can resist.

Restaurants Near You

Even if you don’t live in a big city with fully vegan restaurants, there is a surprisingly large number of vegan options for eating out almost anywhere in the world. Check out two of the most popular resources below to find options near you. Please be advised, while these can be excellent resources for finding vegan options, the unfortunately also label options which are devoid of flesh, but still very nonvegan.

Vegan Food is Everywhere

With a fresh design and tons of listings all over the world, VFIE is our number one recommendation for finding vegan and vegan-friendly establishments.

HappyCow

HappyCow is one of the oldest resources for finding vegan restaurants near you.

VegGuide

VegGuide is similar to HappyCow, but with a more streamlined, minimalist interface making it fast and easy to search.

Vegan Stores

Here are a few places to get vegan products delivered to you

 

    • Vegan Essentials
      VE, as the name implies, is all vegan with a wide selection of foods for humans and nonhumans as well as clothing and other specialty items.
    • Amazon.com
      While not an exclusively vegan storefront, Amazon actually has a large directory of vegan foods available in bulk in their grocery department.
    • Pangea
      Pangea, also known as TheVeganStore.com is an all vegan storefront much like Vegan Essentials.

Veganism is not just a diet, but a moral obligation if we wish to strike at the roots of speciesism in all its forms. Veganism is a moral imperative if we wish to bring an end to an injustice to all animals. Veganism is the very least that we owe to the thinking, feeling creatures with whom we share the Earth.

— Khaetlyn L. Grindell

A great site to visit: www.howdoigovegan.com

Start your very own vertical garden and eat healthy food for free!

It’s no tall tale: Vertical gardening maximizes the growing potential of your container garden or small-space garden plot.

Try growing beans vertical by guiding them up a trellis.

If you’ve ever longed for a lush garden full of vegetables but have put that dream aside because you live on a 1/4-acre lot or in a high-rise condo, you might be surprised to know that your high hopes really can blossom. Vertical-gardening techniques can put fresh tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach and more within easy reach—literally.

Vertical gardening uses an assortment of support structures to help plants grow up instead of out, where their sprawl can take up a lot of space and leave fruits and vegetables vulnerable to diseases, scarring and garden pests. A garden filled with vertically grown vegetables not only produces more in a small space but can also camouflage unattractive structures, provide privacy and shade, and add interest to landscaping. Vertical structures also make a garden more manageable for those who have difficulty bending and stooping, because the vegetables are at eye-level and above, making them easy to prune and check for garden pests.

Starting a vertical garden isn’t hard. Many garden-supply centers offer ready-made supports, including stackable containers and an assortment of trellises, tepees and netting. The most common structures are those designed to support tomatoes, such as the tomato cage and the hanging “upside-down” tomato planters.

There are a surprising number of items that can easily be put to work as garden supports: fences, old gutters, saplings, branches, other plants and even your apartment staircase. For small spaces, vertical gardens often work best in combination with containers or raised beds.

The plants that thrive in a vertical garden are those that are naturally vining, sending out tendrils to grasp their way along as they grow, including cucumbers, winter squash, pumpkins, melons and grapes. But tall, non-vining plants, such as tomatoes, work equally well in a vertical system, given the proper support. And believe it or not, you can even grow low-growing plants vertically.

One key to any successful garden is sunlight. Vertical structures will help expose plants to more of the sunlight available in your area. In situating your vertical garden, be careful your vertical structures won’t cast shadows that could keep sunlight from lower-growing plants. Most vegetable plants need an average of 6 hours of sunlight daily, though root vegetables and some cool-weather-loving plants will tolerate some shade. In a vertical system, sun-loving plants should be grown in a north-south orientation, ensuring that one side will get morning sun from the East and the other will get afternoon sun from the West.

Propping Vertically Grown Plants

Joe D’Eramo, a gardener in Harvard, Mass., who began practicing vertical gardening 16 years into his gardening career, was inspired by Mel Bartholomew’s book, All New Square Foot Gardening: Grow More in Less Space! (Cool Springs Press, February 2006). After reading Bartholomew’s book, he created a garden of raised beds and upright structures that can only be described as an engineering marvel. He says that the source for all the vertical framing was the “take-it-or-leave-it” section at the local transfer station.

His 7-foot vertical structures, aligned along a north-south axis, are made of discarded metal  tubing, and he uses plastic trellis netting with a 6- by 51⁄2-inch mesh to support the plants. The garden is completely enclosed in deer fencing, and weeds are kept at bay with Lumite landscape fabric, which helps give the garden the feel of an outdoor room. He uses the vertical system to grow tomatoes, cucumbers, pole beans and butternut squash.

If you’ve never gardened before, it can be tempting to rely on ready-made structures available at your local garden center. Depending on how much you hope to grow, that can get expensive. There are many structures you can make yourself (such as a portable trellis), from the simple to the sublime, using readily available materials—maybe even those lurking in your own backyard.

If you’re partial to a natural look, suitable branches leaned against a wall or tied together tepee-style make an attractive structure for peas, beans or cucumbers. You can actually use tall, erect plants to serve as climbing posts for vining plants. A traditional practice among Native Americans has been to plant the Three Sisters together—corn, beans and squash. The sturdy, upright corn acts as a support for the climbing beans, which in turn add nitrogen to the soil for the heavy-feeding corn. The squash is allowed to crawl along the ground, crowding out the weeds that would otherwise hamper the growth of the beans and the corn. Like corn, sunflowers can also be used as a support plant.

If you’d like something with a little more structure, there are other options close at hand:

  • Do you have a chain-link dog kennel in your yard? That’s a perfect structure for any vining plant grown vertically.
  • Old wooden ladders can provide the basis for a surprisingly productive garden when leaned against a fence or the side of your house. Vining vegetables or fruits planted underneath will climb the ladder as they grow. They may need to be lightly tied to the first rung when they become tall enough, but once the tendrils latch onto the rung, the plants will take off on their own.
  • Clay pots, strung together with rope and suspended from a sturdy support, make another simple and attractive way to grow plants vertically.
  • Even used children’s toys can serve as support structures for climbing plants. If you know children who have outgrown their Slinkys, put these toys to good use as a creative trellis for beans or peas: Simply suspend a Slinky from an overhang, such as an eave, a porch roof or a stairway railing; anchor the Slinky in place at the bottom by placing a stake in the ground and tying or wiring the stake to the Slinky.
  • Easy Garden Projects to Make, Build and Grow: 200 Do-it-yourself Ideas to Help You Grow Your Best Garden Ever (Yankee Publishing, 2006) describes an old wooden step ladder put into service as the framework for a small garden that could support tomatoes, cucumbers, herbs, salad greens, flowers and more. Flower pots for greens, herbs or flowers are positioned on the ladder’s steps and pail shelf, held in place by long screws through the bottom of each. The drainage holes in the pots are set over the screws; the pots are then filled with soil and seeds. Garden twine is wrapped horizontally between the ladder’s rails, providing support for tomatoes, cucumbers or even pole beans.

When planning your vertical structures, consider what you plan to grow and how tall those plants will become. To keep plants from growing out of your reach, consider an arbor, where plants can grow up one side and down the other.

Vertical Gardening Super Stars

I don’t think anyone has the last word on which plants are best for a vertical garden. There are tried-and-true plants that many vertical gardeners use, but you’re limited only by your imagination—and the location of your garden.

D’Eramo says he likes to grow cucumbers on a trellis because they’re easy to find and pick. “If I were to rank vegetables that do well on a trellis, cucumbers would be at the top of my list, followed by tomatoes, beans and peas,” he says.

Cucumbers, which send out twisting tendrils, grow easily on upright structures. For years, I’ve grown mine on a simple portable fence of  wire attached to two poles. It doesn’t take long for the vines to cover the fence.

Climbing beans and peas are naturals in the vertical garden and are so popular that pea-trellis netting is a stock item at most garden centers. There are many varieties of beans from which to choose, including pod-type beans and shell beans. Imagine growing and drying your own shell beans for a deep-winter batch of chili or soup!

Because tomatoes aren’t naturally vining (i.e., no curling tendrils), they must be supported upright somehow. For my money, D’Eramo’s solution is ideal. Tomatoes can be easily guided through the 6- by 51⁄2-inch mesh openings in his garden trellis as they grow. The metal frame and plastic mesh are sturdy enough to hold their ground as the prolific plants make their way up the 7-foot-tall structure.

Many people use wooden stakes to support tomatoes, placing them in the ground next to the plant and tying them loosely to the stake as they grow. Others use tomato cages, which take up a little more room. My experience has been that the plants quickly outgrow the cages and stakes and eventually tip over at the top, creating a “tomato jungle” that can become a good habitat for garden pests and diseases. Laden with fruit, the plants often cause the cages to fall over, unless the cages are also staked.

If you plant tomatoes and cucumbers, you’ve almost got a salad. What about greens? Lettuce and spinach can be grown in hanging baskets, in gutters mounted on a wall or in vertically set PVC pipes. Little-known Malabar spinach, a climbing perennial plant whose leaves are said to taste a bit like chard, is an ideal candidate for a vertical garden. (This is best grown in locales that have cold winters.)

Even winter vegetables like squash and pumpkins work well in a vertical garden; though heavy fruits such as these may need extra support. Create a “sling” from old nylon stockings (or T-shirts) tied to the stake, and place them around the squash when they’re small. The sling will support them as they grow. Trellises for larger fruits, such as pumpkins or Hubbard squash, may also require extra support. If you really have a yen for pumpkin but no desire to engineer a sturdy frame, consider growing one of the small varieties, such as Jack-be-little or Baby Pam.

Easy Vertical Garden Upkeep

Because the soil around vertically grown plants is exposed to more light and air than the soil under plants left to grow on the ground, it could dry out more readily and could be a handy target for weeds. This calls for plenty of mulch and more frequent checks to see if watering is needed.

A healthy topping of compost in the spring will provide plants with nutrients to help them grow their best throughout the season. At the end of the growing season, remove all dead stalks and leaves and cover the bed with more compost.

Vertical Gardening Results

D’Eramo’s “garden room” isn’t confined to a particularly small area, but his use of vertical structures and raised beds maximizes the space available. His garden, consisting of 17 raised beds—seven of which are trellised—produces more than enough for a family of four. He’s never weighed his yield, so he can’t say how many pounds of produce he gets from his efforts annually, but says, “We grow enough to supply our family and leave us with storage problems.” And, he says, he shares his garden’s overabundance with friends.

The sky is the limit for urban farmers who need to maximize growing space by growing vertical, rather than out.

About the Author: Lynda King is a freelance writer and organic gardener from central Massachusetts and is the president and co-founder of a sustainability group in her community. Her articles on sustainability, food, organic gardening and family research have appeared in Hobby Farm Home, Urban Farm, Family Chronicle and GenWeekly magazines.

This article originally appeared in the Fall 2010 issue of Urban Farm magazine. Happy vegan.

~ Active Vegan ~